Use, misuse, and electronic countermeasures.
Lawful interception The contracts or licenses by which the state controls telephone companies often require that the companies must provide access to tapping lines to law enforcement.
Now that many exchanges have been converted to digital technology, tapping is far simpler and can be ordered remotely by computer.
If the tap is implemented at a digital switchthe switching computer simply copies the digitized bits that represent the phone conversation to a second line and it is impossible to tell whether a line is being tapped. A well-designed tap installed on a phone wire can be difficult to detect.
In some instances some law enforcement may be able to even access a mobile phone's internal microphone even while it isn't actively being used on a phone call unless the battery is removed or drained.
These data can be accessed by security services, often with fewer legal restrictions than for a tap. This information used to be collected using special equipment known as pen registers and trap and trace devices and U.
Today, a list of all calls to a specific number can be obtained by sorting billing records. A telephone tap during which only the call information is recorded but not the contents of the phone calls themselves, is called a pen register tap.
For telephone services via digital exchanges, the information collected may additionally include a log of the type of communications media being used some services treat data and voice communications differently, in order to conserve bandwidth.
Non-official use[ edit ] A telephone recording adapter in-line tap. The phone jack connects to the wall socket while the phone being monitored is connected to the adapter's socket.
The audio plug connects to the recording device computer, tape recorder, etc. Conversations can be recorded or monitored unofficially, either by tapping by a third party without the knowledge of the parties to the conversation, or recorded by one of the parties.
This may or may not be illegal, according to the circumstances and the jurisdiction. There are a number of ways to monitor telephone conversations. One of the parties may record the conversation, either on a tape or solid-state recording device, or on a computer running call recording software.
The recording, whether overt or covert, may be started manually, automatically by detecting sound on the line VOXor automatically whenever the phone is off the hook. An induction coil is usually placed underneath the base of a telephone or on the back of a telephone handset to pick up the signal inductively.
An electrical connection can be made anywhere in the telephone system, and need not be in the same premises as the telephone.
Some apparatus may require occasional access to replace batteries or tapes.
Poorly designed tapping or transmitting equipment can cause interference audible to users of the telephone. The tapped signal may either be recorded at the site of the tap or transmitted by radio or over the telephone wires.
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