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The Indian postal and telecom sectors are one of the worlds oldest. Inthe first experimental electric telegraph line was started between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour. Init was opened for the use of the British East India Company.
The Posts and Telegraphs department occupied a small corner of the Public Works Department,  at that time.
William O'Shaughnessywho pioneered the telegraph and telephone in India, belonged to the Public Works Department, and worked towards the development of telecom throughout this period. A separate department was opened in when telegraph facilities were opened to the public. The permission was refused on the grounds that the establishment of telephones was a Government monopoly and that the Positioning of indian telecom companies itself would undertake the work.
Inthe Government later reversed its earlier decision and a licence was granted to the Oriental Telephone Company Limited of England for opening telephone exchanges at CalcuttaBombayMadras and Ahmedabad and the first formal telephone service was established in the country.
The exchange in Calcutta named the "Central Exchange" had a total of 93 subscribers in its early stage. Later that year, Bombay also witnessed the opening of a telephone exchange. Radio broadcasting was initiated in but became state responsibility only in In it was given the name All India Radio and since it has been called Akashvani.
The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting owned and maintained the audio-visual apparatus—including the television channel Doordarshan —in the country prior to the economic reforms of Inan autonomous body was established in the name of Prasar Bharti to take care of the public service broadcasting under the Prasar Bharti Act.
While all the major cities and towns in the country were linked with telephones during the British period, the total number of telephones in numbered only around 80, Post independence, growth remained slow because the telephone was seen more as a status symbol rather than being an instrument of utility.
The number of telephones grew leisurely toin2. Liberalisation and privatisation[ edit ] A mobile phone tower in Leh, Ladakh, India, surrounded by Buddhist prayer flags Liberalisation of Indian telecommunication in industry started in when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed contracts with Alcatel CIT of France to merge with the state owned Telecom Company ITIin an effort to set up 5, lines per year.
But soon the policy was let down because of political opposition. Consequently, private investment in the sector of Value Added Services VAS was allowed and cellular telecom sector were opened up for competition from private investments. It was during this period that the Narsimha Rao -led government introduced the National Telecommunications policy NTP in which brought changes in the following areas: The policy introduced the concept of telecommunication for all and its vision was to expand the telecommunication facilities to all the villages in India.
The multi-nationals were just involved in technology transfer, and not policy making. The Rao run government instead liberalised the local services, taking the opposite political parties into confidence and assuring foreign involvement in the long distance business after 5 years.
The country was divided into 20 telecommunication circles for basic telephony and 18 circles for mobile services.
These circles were divided into category A, B and C depending on the value of the revenue in each circle.With this, these biggest Indian telecom brands have ventured into offerings like unlimited calling & data plans, which has further pushed the adoption in the Indian telecommunication market.
The top telecom companies in India include Airtel, Idea, Vodafone, BSNL, Jio etc. The Indian postal and telecom sectors are one of the worlds oldest.
In , the first experimental electric telegraph line was started between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour. In , it was opened for the use of the British East India Company. List of telecom companies in India The total number of telephone subscribers in India reached 1, million as on 31st August The number of wireless subscribers are 1, million and the number of wireline subscribers are million.
The officers of ITS work in the DOT, TRAI, TDSAT, BSNL, MTNL,Ministry of Home Affairs,UID,Ministry of Power,Department of Pharmaceuticals, Department of Defence, National Highway Authority of India, RITES, IRCON,TCIL,UPSC,SSC and various other Ministries and Statutory bodies of India.
Telecommunication in India has greatly been supported by the INSAT system of the country, one of the largest domestic satellite systems in the world. India possesses a diversified communications system, which links all parts of the country by telephone, Internet, radio, television and satellite.
From deregulation to privatization to telecom services, to liberalization of Indian telecom policies, increase in competition, introduction of new technologies like black berry phones, and internet and convergence of technologies.