After unsuccessfully trying to modify the Vinayaa small group of "elderly members", i. These teachings were known as the Vibhajjavada. The rapid spread of Buddhism and the emergence of an extensive organization of the sangha are closely linked with the secular authority of the central state There are no known artistic or architectural remains from this epoch except for the cave dwellings of the monks, reflecting the growth and spread of the new religion.
During the reign of the emperor Ashoka 3rd century bcethe Theravada school was established in Sri Lankawhere it subsequently divided into three subgroups, known after their respective monastic centres.
The cosmopolitan Abhayagiriviharavasi maintained open relations with Mahayana and later Vajrayana monks and welcomed new ideas from India. The Mahaviharavasi—with whom the third group, the Jetavanaviharavasi, was loosely associated—established the first monastery in Sri Lanka and preserved intact the original Theravadin teachings.
It was established in Myanmar in the late 11th century, in Thailand in the 13th and early 14th centuries, and in Cambodia and Laos by the end of the 14th century. Although Mahavihara never completely replaced other schools in Southeast Asia, it received special favour at most royal courts and, as a result of the support it received from local elites, exerted a very strong religious and social influence.
Beliefs, doctrines, and practices Cosmology Like other Buddhists, Theravadins believe that the number of cosmos is infinite. Moreover, they share the near-universal Buddhist view that the cosmos inhabited by humankind, like all cosmos, has three planes of existence: The three planes are divided into various levels.
The realm of desire is divided into heavens, hells, and the earth. It is inhabited by those suffering in the various hells—a species of wandering, famished ghosts Sanskrit: The entire cosmos is enclosed by a great Chakkavala wall, a ring of iron mountains that serves as a kind of container for the realm of desire.
Mount Meruthe great cosmic mountain topped by the heaven of the 33 gods over which Indra Sakka presides, is surrounded by a great ocean where people live on four island continents, each inhabited by a different type of human being. The southern continent, loosely correlated with South—and sometimes Southeast—Asia, is called Jambudvipa.
The material aspect of the realm of desire is made up of four elements: In this cosmos, as in all others, time moves in cycles of great duration involving a period of involution destruction of the cosmos by fire, water, aira period of reformation of the cosmic structure, a series of cycles of decline and renewal, and, finally, another period of involution from which the process is initiated once again.
Five buddhas are destined to appear in the cosmos in which humans live, including Gotama Sanskrit: Gautamawho is to be the fourth, and Metteyya Sanskrit: Maitreyawho is to be the fifth. Human existence is a privileged state, because only as a human being can a bodhisattva become a buddha.
Moreover, according to Theravada, human beings can choose to do good works which will result in a good rebirth or bad works which result in a bad rebirth ; above all, they have the capacity to become perfected saints. All these capacities are accounted for in terms of a carefully enumerated series of dhammas Sanskrit: In continual motion, these changing states appear, age, and disappear.
Classification of dhammas Dhammas are divided and subdivided into many groups. Those that are essential to psychophysical existence are the 5 components Sanskrit: The 5 skandhas are rupa Pali and Sanskritmateriality, or form; vedanafeelings of pleasure or pain or the absence of either; sanna Palicognitive perception; sankhara Pali and Sanskritthe forces that condition the psychic activity of an individual; and vinnana Sanskrit: The 12 ayatanas comprise the five sense organs eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body and the mind manasas well as the five related sense fields sights, sounds, odours, tastes, and tangibles and objects of cognition—that is, objects as they are reflected in mental perception.
The 18 elements, or dhatus, include the five sense organs and the mano-dhatu Pali and Sanskrit: The Theravada system of dhammas Pali is not only an analysis of empirical reality but a delineation of the psychosomatic components of the human personality.
Moreover, Theravadins believe that an awareness of the interrelation and operation of these components, as well as the ability to manipulate them, is necessary for an individual to attain the exalted state of an arhat Pali: Through the classification of dhammas, a person is defined as an aggregate of many interrelated elements governed by the law of karma —thus destined to suffer good or bad consequences.
This aggregate has freedom of choice and can perform acts that may generate consequences. Further guidance is found in the seven factors of enlightenment: Meditation Two basic forms of meditation Pali: Closely related to a Hindu tradition of yogathe first of these involves a process of moral and intellectual purification.
Initially, the Theravadin meditator seeks to achieve detachment from sensual desires and impure states of mind through reflection and to enter a state of satisfaction and joy.This chapter is divided into two sections.
The first section defines culture, its importance in international business and the various cultu.
Similarities and Difference Between Hinduism and Buddhism. Essay Words | 10 Pages. Similarities and difference between Hinduism and Buddhism. Buddhism believes in the process of reincarnation based on deeds of the present life.
Essay on Hinduism, Buddhism, And Hinduism - Most of Southern Asia is centered upon one religion, it’s Hinduism. With ,, followers, there are ,, in India. This is the complete text of "What is African Traditional Religion?", an essay by Joseph Omosade Awolalu, which appeared in the the journal "Studies in Comparative Religion", Winter (Vol.
1). Buddhism Vs Hinduism, Comparison Essay. Buddhism/Hinduism Comparison Report The world has many different religions. Asia has had many religions spring up.
Out of these Buddhism and Hinduism are the most popular beliefs in the general population. Hinduism is the oldest known religion and is very rich with literally hundreds of gods, symbolistic rituals and beliefs.
Buddhism and Hinduism both have their origins in India and Lord Buddha, the prophet of Buddhism, hailed from a Hindu family. In fact, Hindus even consider Lord Buddha to be a part of 'dasavatar' or 'ten reincarnations of Lord Vishnu'.
However, there are quite a few fundamental differences between .