This is done in order to avoid double-counting when an output of one firm is used as an input by another in the same measurement. Increases in it are widely used as a measure of the economic growth of nations and industries.
Thompson — Frank B. Gilbreth's independent work on "motion study" is on record as early as ; after meeting Taylor in and being introduced to scientific management, Gilbert devoted his efforts to introducing scientific management into factories.
Harrington Emerson — began determining what industrial plants' products and costs were compared to what they ought to be in Emerson did not meet Taylor until Decemberand the two never worked together. Emerson's testimony in late to the Interstate Commerce Commission brought the movement to national attention  and instigated serious opposition.
By Januarya leading railroad journal began a series of articles denying they were inefficiently managed. When a subsequent attempt was made to introduce the bonus system into the government's Watertown Arsenal foundry during the summer ofthe entire force walked out for a few days.
Congressional investigations followed, resulting in a ban on the use of time studies and pay premiums in Government service. Taylor's death in at age 59  left the movement without its original leader. In management literature today, the term "scientific management" mostly refers to the work of Taylor and his disciples "classical", implying "no longer current, but still respected for its seminal value" in contrast to newer, improved iterations of efficiency-seeking methods.
Today, task-oriented optimization of work tasks is nearly ubiquitous in industry.
Pursuit of economic efficiency Edit Flourishing in the late 19th and early 20th century, scientific management built on earlier pursuits of economic efficiency.
While it was prefigured in the folk wisdom of thriftit favored empirical methods to determine efficient procedures rather than perpetuating established traditions. Thus it was followed by a profusion of successors in applied science, including time and motion studythe Efficiency Movement which was a broader cultural echo of scientific management's impact on business managers specificallyFordismoperations managementoperations researchindustrial engineeringmanagement sciencemanufacturing engineeringlogisticsbusiness process managementbusiness process reengineeringlean manufacturingand Six Sigma.
There is a fluid continuum linking scientific management with the later fields, and the different approaches often display a high degree of compatibility. Taylor rejected the notion, which was universal in his day and still held today, that the trades, including manufacturing, were resistant to analysis and could only be performed by craft production methods.
In the course of his empirical studies, Taylor examined various kinds of manual labor.
For example, most bulk materials handling was manual at the time; material handling equipment as we know it today was mostly not developed yet. He looked at shoveling in the unloading of railroad cars full of ore ; lifting and carrying in the moving of iron pigs at steel mills; the manual inspection of bearing balls ; and others.
He discovered many concepts that were not widely accepted at the time. For example, by observing workers, he decided that labor should include rest breaks so that the worker has time to recover from fatigue, either physical as in shoveling or lifting or mental as in the ball inspection case.
Workers were allowed to take more rests during work, and productivity increased as a result. Graham ; and other theorists, such as Max Weber. Taylor's work also contrasts with other efforts, including those of Henri Fayol and those of Frank Gilbreth, Sr.
Soldiering Edit Scientific management requires a high level of managerial control over employee work practices and entails a higher ratio of managerial workers to laborers than previous management methods.
Such detail-oriented management may cause friction between workers and managers. Taylor observed that some workers were more talented than others, and that even smart ones were often unmotivated. He observed that most workers who are forced to perform repetitive tasks tend to work at the slowest rate that goes unpunished.
This slow rate of work has been observed in many industries and many countries  and has been called by various terms.
He therefore proposed that the work practice that had been developed in most work environments was crafted, intentionally or unintentionally, to be very inefficient in its execution.
He posited that time and motion studies combined with rational analysis and synthesis could uncover one best method for performing any particular task, and that prevailing methods were seldom equal to these best methods.
Crucially, Taylor himself prominently acknowledged that if each employee's compensation was linked to their output, their productivity would go up.
In contrast, some later adopters of time and motion studies ignored this aspect and tried to get large productivity gains while passing little or no compensation gains to the workforce, which contributed to resentment against the system. Relationship to mechanization and automation Edit A machinist at the Tabor Company, a firm where Frederick Taylor's consultancy was applied to practice, about Scientific management evolved in an era when mechanization and automation were still in their infancy.
The ideas and methods of scientific management extended the American system of manufacturing in the transformation from craft work with humans as the only possible agents to mechanization and automation, although proponents of scientific management did not predict the extensive removal of humans from the production process.
Concerns over labor-displacing technologies rose with increasing mechanization and automation. By factoring processes into discrete, unambiguous units, scientific management laid the groundwork for automation and offshoringprefiguring industrial process control and numerical control in the absence of any machines that could carry it out.
Taylor and his followers did not foresee this at the time; in their world, it was humans that would execute the optimized processes. For example, although in their era the instruction "open valve A whenever pressure gauge B reads over value X" would be carried out by a human, the fact that it had been reduced to an algorithmic component paved the way for a machine to be the agent.
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